A Study of Military Architecture for Fort San Carlos de Austria at Santa Maria de Galve

George Michael Renacker

          An examination of defense fortification evolution throughout Europe and Colonial North America resulted in the hypothesis that form and function are inextricably linked in military architecture. Focusing on Pensacola's first permanent settlement, the Spanish Presidio Santa María de Galve, this study describes the changing function and evolving form of its fort, San Carlos de Austria. By utilizing primary documents, maps, archaeological data, and analysis of contemporary regional sites, this study argues that the Presidio's inability to effectively develop a successful fort led to its destruction and removal of the Spanish presence on the Barrancas.