General Psychology Study Guide --- Test # 3


1)  Describe the basic components of the following personality theories:


  • Psychodynamic (e.g., Freud)
  • Humanistic (e.g., Rogers)
  • Social Learning/Cognitive (e.g., Bandura, Mischel)


2)  Explain the psychosexual stages in psychodynamic theory (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital)


3)  Discuss the major defense mechanisms in psychodynamic theory such as:


  • projection
  • reaction formation
  • repression
  • sublimation
  • rationalization
  • displacement


4)  Differentiate between the functions of the id, ego, and superego.


5)  Explain self-actualization and unconditional positive regard within humanistic theories.


6)  Define the concepts of reciprocal determinism and self-efficacy in cognitive/social learning theories.


7)  Differentiate between objective and projective measures of personality.


8) Describe the components of the 5-factor model of personality.


9)  Describe the various types/classifications of psychological disorders (e.g., anxiety, mood, personality, and dissociative disorders).


10)  Explain schizophrenia and its subtypes (disorganized, catatonic, paranoid, undifferentiated, and residual).


11) State the purpose and uses of the Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM-IV-TR).


12) Describe the following conditions:


  • phobias
  • obsessive-compulsive disorder
  • posttraumatic stress disorder
  • neurotic versus psychotic disorders
  • substance abuse


13)  Differentiate between transference and countertransference.


14)  Explain the approach of the following behavior therapies:


  • counterconditioning
  • systematic desensitization
  • implosion therapy
  • flooding
  • aversion therapy


15)  Describe the concept of modeling and how it can be used therapeutically.


16)  State the basic approach of rational emotive therapy (RET) used by Albert Ellis.


17)  Explain the basic approaches of client-centered and gestalt therapies.


18)  State the major types of drugs used to treat psychological disorders (e.g., for depression, anxiety, psychosis).


19)  State the 6 universal influence principles (compliance principles) identified by Cialdini. 


 20) Explain the stages of helping behavior proposed by Latane and Darley in their model.


 21) Describe how the following factors can affect how we help others:


  • the assessment of costs
  • knowledge, expertise
  • similarity and familiarity
  • models
  • moods


22)  State the basic findings of Milgram's research on obedience and how the following factors may affect obedience rates:


  • proximity to the victim
  • gender
  • pre-existing condition of the "victim"
  • peer support (or lack of support)


23)  Discuss how modeling (e.g., media, some sports, war) can influence people to behave aggressively.


24)  Generate a definition of "pornography" that is consistent with the social psychology evidence regarding violence against women.


25)  List the various characteristics of violent stimuli.


26)  State the 3 basic principles that have been shown to reduce prejudice.


27)  Describe how attitude similarity can lead to interpersonal attraction and why.


28)  Explain the basic premise of the repulsion hypothesis of interpersonal attraction.


29)  State the various factors that can affect initial interpersonal attraction.


30)  Explain the findings of the "bridge" study and how it relates to the labeling     

of our emotional states.


31) Summarize how males and females can differ in their evaluation of "friendly" behavior.


32)  Describe how the principles of equity theory can affect our evaluation of interpersonal relationships.