The relationship between time structure and boredom proneness, independent of gender, was examined separately within two cultures. University students (N = 338) from Ireland and the United States completed the Boredom Proneness Scale (BPS; Farmer & Sundberg, 1986), the Time Structure Questionnaire (TSQ; Bond & Feather, 1988), and a demographic questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses indicated that time structure had a significant effect on boredom proneness scores within each culture. Specifically, greater time use scores were related to lower boredom proneness in the Irish sample, but (surprisingly) to higher boredom proneness scores within the U.S. sample.

Also, gender was a significant predictor of boredom proneness in the U.S. sample (with males being associated with higher boredom scores) but this was not a significant factor among the Irish.