Source: Astin, H. S., & Astin, A. W. (1996). A social change model of leadership development guidebook 3 Ed. The National Clearinghouse of Leadership Programs.
Since it happens that there are seven values on this list and they all begin with the letter "C," they are dubbed the "7 C’s" of leadership development for social change. These values, in turn, can be organized within the three levels of the model (Figure 1), as follows: