New Stephen Chew Videos on Effective Teaching
February 22, 2017 | Claudia Stanny
The Cognitive Principles of Effective Teaching
Stephen Chew has followed his excellent videos explaining cognitive principles of learning to students with a series of five brief videos on the cognitive basis of effective teaching. The purpose of the videos is to synthesize current research in cognitive psychology relevant to student learning and to present the information in a form that is helpful to teachers for improving the design, implementation, and assessment of pedagogy. Below is a summary of each video.
Chew discusses nine cognitive factors that influence learning in college classrooms:
- Student mental mindset
- Metacognition and self-regulation
- Prior knowledge
- Ineffective learning strategies
- Transfer of learning
- Constraints of selective attention
- Constraints of mental effort and working memory
Beliefs About Teaching
Chew discusses the relation between the beliefs teachers hold about teaching and learning and how effective the teacher is in promoting student learning. Teacher beliefs can either help or undermine teaching effectiveness. Chew emphasizes the importance of having an accurate understanding of how people learn in order to be successful as a teacher.
The Cognitive Challenges of Teaching: Mindset, Metacognition, and Trust
This video introduces nine factors identified by cognitive research that teachers must understand in order to help students learn. He discusses three factors (mental mindset, metacognition/self-regulated learning, and trust) in detail. The video examines how feedback can promote these factors. In particular, “wise” feedback provides students with information that reinforces the high standards of the teacher and communicates expectations that students can improve if they use the feedback to change their study and learning behaviors.
The Cognitive Challenges of Teaching: Prior Knowledge, Misconceptions, Ineffective Learning Strategies, and Transfer
Students do not come to us as blank slates, but bring a mix of accurate knowledge and misconceptions to their classes. This video discusses how prior knowledge and misconceptions influence learning. Finally, the video explores the importance of students developing and utilizing effective learning strategies.
The Cognitive Challenges of Teaching: Constraints of Selective Attention, Mental Effort, and Working Memory
Selective attention, mental effort, and working memory are major constraints on learning. The first two involve attention, which limits what we can be aware of and how hard we can concentrate. Working memory limits our ability to learn complex information quickly. The video discusses deliberate practice, automaticity, and chunking as strategies that allow students to address and overcome these constraints.
Teachable Moments, Formative Assessment, and Conceptual Change
This video discusses how all nine cognitive factors interact with one another. Effective teachers manage that interaction to facilitate learning. Chew introduces the concept of teachable moments to capture and illustrate this process. Finally, the video discusses how formative assessments contribute to a constructive learning context in which learning becomes long lasting, regardless of which pedagogy a teacher uses.