Future Pragmatism Culture Technology Pedagogy Psychology Design Model RLOs Intro
RLOs Menu Assembly of RLOs Practice and Assessment RIO Content Reusable Information Object (RIO) Advantages of Reusable Learning Object Applications The Cisco Reusable Learning Object (RLO) Model Learning Object Taxonomy Historical Perspective
Design Model Menu The Interdependence of the Five Dimensions The Common Path of Psychological and Instructional Theory The Five-Dimensional Framework Establishing the Link Between Assumptions and Methods Grounded Learning System Design Requirements
Psychology Menu Social Properties of Knowledge Knowledge Operations The Shape of Knowledge Talking About Knowledge
Pedagogy Menu Cognitive Apprenticeship as Instructional Design Strategy Metacognitive Strategies Ausubel's Cognitive Style Continuum Strategies for Mastery of New Material The Importance of Knowledge Heirarchy to Instructional Strategy Anchor Points in Cognitive Structure Instructional Strategies Learning Strategy Requirements for Component Centered Design The Separation of Content from Strategy Knowledge Objects as Instructional Design Components Constructivist Orientation
Technology Menu The Work Process for Knowledge Tool Creation Helping Tools Talk to One Another About Knowledge Defining Performance as an Expression of Organizational Knowledge Knowledge Tools
Culture Menu Evaluating the Consequences of Innovation the Features of Social Structure Influencing Adoption of Innovation Five Steps in the Decision to Adopt Innovation Factors Affecting the Adoption of Innovation Criticisms of the Systems Approach to Instructional Design
Pragmatism Menu Organizational Context as an Influence on the Development Process The Tension Between Market Demand and Institutional Accountability
Talking About Knowledge Menu Mental Models Types of Knowledge Schema Generic Tasks Exemplars The Acquisition of Information
Shape of Knowledge Menu A Cognitive Structure Taxonomy Knowledge Relationships in Cognitive Structure Knowledge Organization and Individual Differences Interpretation Categorization The Combination of Knowledge Organization and Heuristics
Knowledge Operations Menu Problem Solution Planning Knowledge as Symbols Enabling Logical Operations Visual Imagery as the Medium for Knowledge Processing Representation-Forming Operations Human Preferences for Heirarchical Knowledge Representation Preferences in Patterns and Styles of Knowledge Negotiation in Cognitive System Linkages
Social Properties of Knowledge Menu Knowledge Embedded in Social Context Distributed Intelligence Problem Space Representation as a Solution Limitation Knowledge as Stories Knowledge and Social Context
Knowledge Tools Menu Reusable Resources Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS) Performance Support
Defining Performance as an Expression of Organizational Knowledge Menu Analysis Models for the Development of Knowledge Base Tools The Problem of Knowledge Elicitation Special Constraints on Knowledge Base Tools Organizational Context as a Factor in Knowledge-Based System Design Knowledge Operations in Technology-Based Tools Performance Context in EPSS Design
Helping Tools Talk to One Another About Knowledge Menu Challenges to Metadata Standards The Evolution of Metadata Standards Metadata Taxonomic Systems for Knowledge
The Work Process for Knowledge Tool Creation Menu A Cyclical Model for Instructional System Design and Development Rapid Prototyping as an Instructional Design Process Development Methodology
Dave Dawson, Ed.D. Home contact Me VitaEPSS Development Research Teaching
Types of Knowledge

West et al. (1991) propose that knowledge with different properties is processed and organized differently in cognitive structure. They support three broad categories or types of knowledge:

Declarative knowledge is described by West et al. (1991) as factual in nature. It is stored in the form of propositions and networks of propositions. Propositional networks are subdivided into two types:

Semantic networks represent lists of elements that may or may not have strong relationships among each other, but whose access and recall is aided by their relative position in the network. They also support Anderson’s (1985) notions on episodic networks by suggesting that they represent connected chains of proposition whose relationships with each other are usually in the form of historical narrative. Procedural knowledge consists of order-specific, time-dependent, sequential instructions that characterize knowing how to accomplish some task (West et al.). The distinction between procedural knowledge and episodic network declarative knowledge is the focus on the process independent of content in the former and the focus on the relationships among a sequence of specific facts in the latter (West et al.).

Prawat (1989) suggests that conditional knowledge represents a higher order cognitive process in that it is concerned with the description of specific criterion combinations and contexts that may be matched to a range of responses to them. West et al. (1991) draw on this to conclude that conditional knowledge defines the knowing when and why to use a procedure.

Once taxonomy of knowledge is described, the organization of knowledge in cognitive structure becomes a concern for the learning theorist (West et al., 1991). West et al. propose that the value in well-structured knowledge lies in its logical order, its usefulness in making predictions about the future, and its value for making inferences when there are gaps in its structure.