Chapter 3: Major Title VII Protected Class Issues

Section I: Discrimination Based on Race

EEOC Facts About Race/Color Discrimination

EEOC: Questions & Answers About Race and Color Discrimination

EEOC Guidance: Race and Color Discrimination


TIP Article (From the Society of Industrial-Organizational Society, Inc.)

Further Clarification of the Judicial Status of Banding


Key Cases


Griggs v. Duke Power 401 U.S. 424 (1971)

Albemarle Paper v. Moody 422 U.S. 405 (1975)

Conecticut v. Teal 457 U.S. 440 (1982)

          Bridgeport Guardians Inc. v. City of Bridgeport 933 F.2d 1140 (1991)

          Wards Cove v. Atonio 490 U.S. 642 (1989)

          Hayden v. County of Nassau 180 F.3d 42 (1999)

          Chicago Firefighters Local #2 v. City of Chicago 249 F.3d 649 (2001)

          Officers For Justice v. Civil Service Commission 979 F.2d 721 (1992)

          Bradley v. City of Lynn 433 F. Supp 2d 157 (2006)

          Ricci v. DeStefano 530 F.3d 87 (2009)


Racial Harassment:


Vance v. Ball State University (2013) 646 F. 3d 461

Section II: Discrimination Based on Religion




EEOC Compliance Manual on Religious Discrmination

EEOC Questions and Answers About Religious Discrimination

EEOC Best Practices for Eliminating Religious Discrimination

Hosanna-Tabor Evangelical Lutheran Church and School v. EEOC (2012)

Section III: Discrimination Based on National Origin




EEOC Compliance Manual of National Origin Discrimination

EEOC: Questions & Answers About National Origin Discrimination

Section IV: Sexual Harassment

 EEOC Sexual Harassment Guidelines

EEOC Policy Guidance on Sexual Harassment

Fact Sheet--Sexual Harassment

Enforcement Guidance: Vicarious Employer Liability for Unlawful Harassment by Supervisors


Key Cases:

Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson 477 U. S. 57 (1986)

Click here to listen to the oral argument in the Vinson case


Harris v. Forklift Systems 510 U.S. 17 (1993)

Click here to listen to the oral opinion in the Harris case

Enforcement Guidance on Harris v. Forklift Sys., Inc.

Ellison v. Brady, 924 F.2d 872 (9th Cir. 1991)


Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services, Incorporated, et al. 523 U.S. 75 (1998)

Click here to listen to the oral argument in the Oncale case


Burlington Industries, Inc. v. Ellerth 524 U.S. 742 (1998)

Click here to listen to the oral argument in the Ellerth case


Gebser v. Lago Vista Independent School Dist. 106 F.3d 1223 (1998)

Click here to listen to the oral argument in the Gebser case


Faragher v. City of Boca Raton 524 U.S. 775 (1998)

Click here to listen to the oral argument in the Faragher case


Davis v. Monroe County Board of Education 526 U.S. 629 (1999)

Click here to listen to the oral argument and/or decision in the Davis case


Pennsylvania State Police v. Suder 542 U.S. 129 (2004)


Section V: Other Sex Discrimination Scenarios




Pregnancy Discrimination Act (1978)

EEOC Facts About Pregnancy Discrimination


Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993

Department of Labor FMLA Compliance Assistance

   Key Cases:

Weeks v. Southern Bell 467 F,2d 995 (1972) [State Protective Laws]


City of Los Angeles v. Manhart 435 U.S. 702 (1978) [Retirement Benefits]


International Union v. Johnson Controls 499 U.S. 187 (1991) [Fetal Protection]


Phillips v. Martin Marietta 400 U.S. 542 (1971) [Sex-Plus Discrimination]


Carrol v. Tallman 604 F.2d 79 (1979) [Sex-Plus Discrimination]


General Electric v. Gilbert 429 U.S. 125 (1976) [Pregnancy]


Newport News v. EEOC 462 U.S. 669 (1983) [Pregnancy]


California Federal Savings and Loan Association v. Guerra 479 U.S. 272 (1987) [Pregnancy]


Stout v. Baxter 282 F.3d 856 (2002) [Pregnancy]


Nevada Dept. of Human Resources v. Hibbs (2003) [FMLA)


Coleman v. Maryland Court of Appeals (2012)  [FMLA]


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