Languages – Dialects

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There are between 35 and 47 languages and dialects spoken in Afghanistan, and bilingualism is very common. According to recent U.S. government estimates, approximately 35% of the Afghan population speaks Pashto, and about 50% speak Dari, a dialect of Persian. Turkic languages (Uzbek and Turkmen) are spoken by about 11% of the population, with the remaining languages or dialects being localized by tribal region. Warning sign in english and dari

The Afghan constitution states that "from amongst Pashto, Dari, Uzbeki, Turkmani, Baluchi, Pashai, Nuristani, Pamiri and other current languages in the country, Pashto and Dari shall be the official languages of the state." In addition, other languages are considered "the third official language" in areas where they are spoken by a majority.[1]

Their constitution also states that the Afghan National Anthem, Milli Tharana, "shall be in Pashto with the mention of ‘God is Great’ as well as the names of the tribes of Afghanistan."[2]


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