Society and Norms: Wealth and Poverty

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Pakistan has a relatively small middle and upper class and a large lower class of villagers comprising 65% of the population. Thirty-five percent of the total population lives on the equivalent of $1 dollar per day, while the rest of the population has a mean annual income of $1085 [28]. Poverty is pervasive throughout urban and rural areas because of slowed economic activity and high population growth. Two-fifths of the population is without safe drinking water and about half without sanitation. Increased opium addiction throughout Pakistan has also been a factor leading to individual and family poverty.

The Punjabi ethnic group, located in the most economically viable province of Punjab, has historically dominated the government and army. The Muhajirs, located in the Sindh Province, control a large amount of Pakistan's business, government, and military because they are the only native speakers of the national language, Urdu. The Baluchis and Pashtuns are by far the poorest and least influential ethnic group due to minimal infrastructure and resources in their regions (e.g. water) [29].

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