Unit 7
the turnbull plantation -
a british settlement in florida

Students learn about Florida’s British period, its indigo plantations,
and its coquina archaeology.

academic outcomes/lesson objectives:

Students read selections introducing them to the ways that Dr. Turnbull’s indigo colony utilized coquina structures, introduced Minorcans to Florida, and founded the city of New Smyrna.


Austin, Robert and Dorothy Moore. Archaeology of the New Smyrna Colony. New Smyrna Beach, FL: Southeastern Archaeological Research, Inc, 1999.

Beeson, Kenneth Jr. Fromajadas and Indigo – The Minorcan Colony in Florida. Charleston, SC: The History Press, 2006.

Florida Public Archaeology Network. 28 February 2008 <http://www.flpublicarchaeology.org>.

Grange, Roger Jr. “The Turnbull Colonist’s House at New Smyrna Beach: A Preliminary Report on 8VO7051,” The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. 52. (Mar-Jun 1999).

Grange, Roger and Dorothy Moore. “Search and Rescue Archaeology at the Smyrnea Settlement: A Preliminary Description of Structure Types.” The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. 56 (Sep 2003)

Griffin, Patricia. “Life on the Plantations of East Florida: 1763-1848,” The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. 56, (Sep 2003). “Indigo Cultivation in British East Florida.” Florida History Online. 24 February 2008.
Luther, Gary. History of New Smyrna East Florida with Illustrations. New Smyrna Beach, FL: Luthers
Publishing, 2001.

Moore, Dorothy and Dana St. Claire. “Dreams and Promises Unfulfilled: Andrew Turnbull and the New Smyrna Colony.” The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. 52, (Mar-Jun 1999)

“Smyrnea: Dr. Andrew Turnbull and the Mediterranean Settlement at New Smyrna and Edgewater, Florida, 1766-1777.” Florida History Online. 24 February 2008.

“Three New Smyrna Maps Dated 1767-1700 Discovered in Dundee, Scotland.” Musqueto Newsletter. New Smyrna, FL: Southeast Volusia Historical Society, Inc. 2003.


Kelley Weitzel, http://www.KelleyWeitzel.com

Student Articles & Activities:

1. Who came to Florida with Dr. Turnbull?
2. The New Smyrna Settlement – Troubles from the Start
3. The New Smyrna Settlement – Problems to the End
4. Why was indigo an important crop?
5. Is there really a Fort in Old Fort Park?
6. Who else built on this coquina foundation?
7. What other coquina structures did Turnbull build?
8. ACTIVITY: Using Archaeology & History to Date the “Settlers’ House” Site


Artifact, Canal, Colony, Colonist, Coquina, Descendents, Drought, Dye, Excavate, Fort,
Foundation, Indentured Servant, Indigo, Irrigate, Malaria, Minorca, Settlers, Structure, Synthetic,
Thatch, Wharf



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